Atsugi NAS is close to Tokyo (about a 45 minute train ride) and offers excellent facilities for photography, although if sunny heat haze can be an issue.
Home to squadrons of both the Lockheed P3 Orion and the indigenous Kawasaki P1, NAS Atsugi is also the base for CVW-5 when land based. Unfortunately on both my visits (in 2012 and this time), CVN-73 USS George Washington has been at sea in the Pacific.
Also based here is a Shin Meiwa US-1A, although I haven’t seen one on either of my visits.
Once again, invaluable information about photography locations can be found at the Japan Spotter Association website, in the Vantage Point section.